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Mothers’ Knowledge Towards Prevention of Early Childhood Home-Injuries at Babylon Province, Iraq

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 عبد المهدي عبد الرضا حسن الشحماني 13/03/2019 19:58:46
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Mothers’ Knowledge Towards Prevention of Early Childhood
Home-Injuries at Babylon Province, Iraq
Abbas Fadhel Jassem1, Nuhad Al- Doori1, Abd- Almahdi Abd- Redha1
1PhD Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing / University of Babylon, Iraq
ABSTRACT
Background: Injuries are the foremost foundation of death which are considered as an international problem
when killed over 630 000 persons especially in children under 15 years old. Therefore, the aim of current
study was to assess mothers’ knowledge regarding prevention of early childhood home-injuries at Babylon
province, Iraq Methodology: Descriptive study conducted at Babylon Hospital for Maternity and Pediatric,
Ibn-Saif Hospital and Al-Noor Hospital for Pediatrics in Babylon city. Participants were chosen by nonprobability
(purposive) sampling method which consisted of 218 mothers admitted to the hospitals with
their children.
Result: the result revealed that the 42.7% of mothers were within the age group (27-37) years old. In regard
to the educational level, findings indicated that most of them (41.3%) were institute and above graduates
and (60.6%) work as housewives. Also, current study revealed that the majority (83.5%) of mothers had
knowledge regarding prevention of childhood injuries in Hilla City.
Conclusion and recommendations: Mothers’ socio-demographic characteristics did not influence their
knowledge. The study recommended that knowledge is an important aspect in preventing accidents. More
studies can be conducted at a national level and to evaluate knowledge in rural areas.
Keywords: Childhood injuries, Mothers knowledge, Educational level, socio-demographic data, Purposive
sampling.
INTRODUCTION
Injuries are the foremost foundation of death which
are considered as an international problem when killed
over 630 000 persons especially in children under 15
years old. i,n addition several thousand children who
live with different degrees of disability due to injuries
in or around home, like drowning, burns or falls[1].
Accidents are highest causes of death among
children aged between one and five years as well as
they were one of the five essential causes of death in
developing countries annually. Explorative nature of
children, affected by assured influences, had upraised
the possibility of home accidents that take place in rural
areas than the urban. In addition to living conditions,
mother’s educational status, age of mother, number of
children in family and both indoor and outdoor nearby
environment [2], are factors that may contribute to the
possibility of home accidents.
Therefore, particular accident looking forward
activities should be carried out by mothers through
addressing knowledge and strengthen their orientations,
as they are energetic care providers and are forcefully
responsible to support child’s curiosity and perk up
their security from the incomparable challenges of
involuntary injuries. Most parents cannot ascertain
particular preventive strategy that the specified parents
do not hold a strong belief in the preventability of
injuries though they believe that they can someway
retain their child not dangerous [3]. A family with active
adolescents is a momentous family for the reason that
children at this age need an astonishing arrangement
of time. Their creative energy is at such a crest, to the
point that security contemplations, for example, keeping
away from inadvertent accidents develop as a critical
wellness concern. On the off chance that a little child
is hospitalized in light of a mishap, guardians may also
have battling giving consideration since they believe
DOI Number: 10.5958/0976-5506.2019.00399.1
Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, February 2019 2018, Vol. 10, No. 02 835
that they have achieved more prominent to stop the
tyke’s damage. It might, likewise, be trying for father
and mother to room in at the wellbeing focus because of
the reality they have other more youthful youth at local
who need mind. On the off chance that the baby returns
household for additionally mind, a family in this stage
can likewise need endured help and assistance from
an area wellbeing medical caretaker to give essential
social insurance to the wiped out tyke [ 4]. Therefore, the
aim of current study was to assess mothers’ knowledge
regarding prevention of early childhood home-injuries at
Babylon province, Iraq.
METHODOLOGY
Descriptive study conducted on 218mothers who
were admitted to the pediatrics hospitals (Babylon
Hospital for Maternity and Pediatrics, Ibn-Saif Hospital
and Al Noor Hospital for Pediatrics) at Babylon city
between15th, February and 15th, March 2018at some
stage in the existing research.. Sampling method used
in the study was ،non-probability (purposive sampling)
involved 218mothers admitted to the hospitals with
their children. The tool has been planned and built by
the authors after searching related sources and preceding
research paper. The tool is applied as a means of
facts series. Collection of data was carried out via the
application of the interview by using the tool which is the
questionnaire introduced to the mothers who have been
admitted to the mentioned hospitals. The information
was accrued after getting the settlement of the members,
who interviewed and informed them of the purposes and
objectives. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package
for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.
RESULTS
Table 1) reveals that 42.7% of mothers were
within the age group (27-37) years old. Regarding the
educational level, findings of current study indicated that
most of them (41.3%) were institute and above graduates
and (60.6%) worked as housewives. Regarding their
knowledge and sources of such knowledge, results
indicated (86.2%) have knowledge and (65.6%) of them
acquired these knowledge from friends and neighbors.
RESULT
Table 1 Distribution of the study sample according to their demographical data.
Age (years)
16 -26 88 40.4
27-37 93 42.7
38-48 33 15.1
?49 4 1.8
Total 218 100
Educational Level
Unable to red and write 16 7.3
Read and write 32 14.7
Primary school 33 15.1
Secondary school 47 21.6
Institute and above 90 41.3
Total 218 100
Occupation
Housewife 132 60.6
Employed 86 39.4
Total 218 100
knowledge about home accidents
No 30 13.8
Yes 188 86.2
Total 218 100
836 Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, February 2019 2018, Vol. 10, No. 02
Source of knowledge
Parents 6 2.8
Friends and neighbors 143 65.6
Mass media 28 12.8
Primary health care center 21 9.6
Previous experience 7 3.2
School 12 5.5
Books and magazines 1 0.5
Internet 0 0.0
Total 218 100
Table (2) shows that each one of mothers’ responses well knowledgeable in relation to prevention childhood
injuries.
Table 3) well-known shows that common of (83.5%) of mothers had understanding regarding prevention of
childhood injuries in Hilla City.
Table (4) presents a non-significant connotation between mother’s knowledge and their demographic
characteristics at P >0.05.
Table2 Distribution of mothers’ knowledge concerning prevention childhood injuries
List Knowledge Items Scale F % M.S. S.d. Assessment
،،Most injuries to young children occur at home,,
1
Not Sure
22
Know
169
Total
218
Don’t
Know 27 12.4
2.65 0.69 Know
10.1
77.5
100
Mothers prevention measurement is important to decrease the risk of children injuries
2
Not Sure
24
Know
188
Total
218
Don’t
Know 6 2.8
2.83 0.44 Know
11.0
86.2
100
Mothers with young children should know about first aids
3
Not Sure
20
Know
182
Total
218
Don’t
Know 16 7.3
2.76 0.57 Know
9.2
83.5
100
Home had many causes to produce accident
Cont... Table 1 Distribution of the study sample according to their demographical data.
Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, February 2019 2018, Vol. 10, No. 02 837
16
Not Sure
54
Know
153
Total
218
Don’t
Know 11 5.0
2.65 0.57 Not Sure
24.8
70.2
100
،،Childhood injuries are the leading cause of death in children from birth - 6 years,,
17
Not Sure
107
Know
70
Total
218
Don’t
Know 41 18.8
2.13 0.70 Not Sure
49.1
32.1
100
Falls are the most common injury that results in hospital admission of children from birth – 6 years
18
Not Sure
76
Know
103
Total
218
Don’t
Know 39 17.9
2.29 0.75 Not Sure
34.9
47.2
100
Drugs are the common cause of poisoning
19
Not Sure
88
Know
83
Total
218
Don’t
Know 47 21.6
2.16 0.75 Not Sure
40.4
38.1
100
Home injuries for children are preventable
Cont... Table 2 Distribution of mothers’ knowledge concerning prevention childhood injuries
838 Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, February 2019 2018, Vol. 10, No. 02
20
Not Sure
38
Know
174
Total
218
Don’t
Know 6 2.8
2.77 0.48 Know
17.4
79.8
100
،،Most burns are caused in the home by incidents involving hot water and food,,
21
Not Sure
55
Know
139
Total
218
Don’t
Know 24 11.0
2.52 0.68 Know
25.2
63.8
100
،،The kitchen is considered the most dangerous place in the house for children,,
22
Not Sure
40
Know
173
Total
218
Don’t
Know 5 2.3
2.77 0.47 Know
18.3
79.4
100
،،F= Frequency, %= Percentage, M.S.= Mean of score “ Cut off point (0.66), Don’t Know (mean of score
1-1.66), Not Sure (mean of score 1.67-2.33), Know (mean of score 2.34 and more)”, S.d= Stander deviation,,.
Cont... Table2 Distribution of mothers’ knowledge concerning prevention childhood injuries
Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, February 2019 2018, Vol. 10, No. 02 839
Table 3 Overall assessment of mothers’ knowledge concerning prevention childhood injuries
Mothers’ Knowledge
Scale F % M.S. S.d. Assessment
Fail 6 2.8
2.81 0.46 Pass
Fair 30 13.8
Pass 182 83.5
Total 218 100
،،F= Frequency, %= Percentage, M.S.= Mean of score “ Cut off point (0.66), Fail (mean of score 1-1.66), Fair
(mean of score 1.67-2.33), Pass (mean of score 2.34 and more)”, S.d= Stander deviation,,.
Table 4 Relationship between mothers’ knowledge and their demographic data
Demographic
data Scale
Overall Knowledge
obs. d. f crit.
Fail Fair Pass
Age (years)
16-26 2 15 71
3.371 6 12.592
27-37 3 13 77
38-48 1 2 30
?49 0 0 4
Total 6 30 182
P-value= 0.761 ?NS
Education Level
Unable to red and writ 0 3 13
6.274 8 15.807
Read and writ 2 4 26
Primary School 0 6 27
Secondary school 1 3 43
Institute and above 3 14 73
Total 6 30 182
P-value= 0.617 ?NS
Occupation
House wife 3 20 109
0.783 2 5.991
Employed 3 10 73
Total 6 30 182
P-value= 0.676 ?NS
knowledge about
home accident
No 0 5 25
0.557 2 5.991
Yes 6 25 157
Total 6 30 182
P-value= 01.171 ?NS
Sources of knowledge
Parents 0 0 6
9.270 12 21.026
Friends and neighbors 3 23 117
Mass media 1 1 26
Primary health care center 1 3 17
Previous experience 0 0 7
School 1 3 8
Books and magazine 0 0 1
Total 6 30 182
P-value= 0.680 ?NS
840 Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, February 2019 2018, Vol. 10, No. 02
DISCUSSION
Mothers’ socio-demographic data
Mother’s socio-demographic traits have a quit
essential effect on their children exposure to different
types of home accidents. Findings of current study
revealed that 42.7% of mothers were within the age
group (27-37) years old. This result is concurrent
with a study that has investigated knowledge, mindset
and exercise amongst Egyptian mothers about homerelated
accidents in region in El-Minia Governorate,
Egypt. Findings indicated that 35% of participants aged
25-35 years old [5].
In regard to the educational level, findings indicated
that most of them (41.3%) were institute and above
graduates and (60.6%) work as housewives.. In light
of these results, a study has been conducted on (100)
mothers who were reviewed for maternal and child care.
Findings revealed that most of study participants (33%)
had primary school educational level and most of them
(73%) were housewives[6].
When asking mothers about their knowledge and
sources of such knowledge, the results indicated that
86.2% of them had knowledge and (65.6%) of them
acquired that knowledge from friends and neighbors.
More than half of mothers had experience with home
accidents and the most of these accidents (22.5%)
were home injuries. A previous study conducted in
Sharkia Governorate concerned mothers’ schooling and
their information about domestic accidents prevention
amongst preschool children [5]. The latter study
showed that regarding educational level, (33.3%) had
completed university education; whereas, (25.3%) of
them were illiterate. Occupational status showed that
(58%) of studied mothers didn’t work (only at homes).
Main source of their knowledge was from “radio and
television” (24%) then “doctors and nurses” (15.3%),
“part of curriculum” nearly(14%) and the lowest source
was from “books” (6.7%). In addition, that study
showed that 55.3% of studied mothers did not have any
knowledge about the causes of home accidents.
In current study, the friends and neighbors
considered better than the radio and television, because
the results of population of El-Sabely as mentioned
above did not have any knowledge about the causes of
home accidents[7].
Another similar study indicated that 58.5% of
mothers were aged 26-35 years old and 57.1% of them
had 1-2 Children. In regard to educational level and
occupation, most of them (56.5% and 90.9%) were
primary school graduates and housewives, respectively[3].
Mothers’ knowledge towards prevention of
childhood injuries
Findings of current study revealed that the majority
(83.5%) of mothers at Hilla town had good knowledge
regarding prevention of childhood injuries. Results of
studies that come along with this study had investigated
the data and practices for domestic accidents among 756
mothers of educational institution youngsters in urban
center Southwest regime space, Nigeria. Pretested form
with a 15-point data scale regarding domestic accidents.
Results indicated that data on causes and interference of
domestic accidents were high among respondents and
preventive practices ought to be reinforced. Academic
interventions adore coaching and public enlightenment
geared toward empowering mothers and vital others
to be additional concerned within the interference of
domestic accidents among their educational institution
youngsters area unit suggested [9].
Moreover, another study conducted by [2] aimed
to assess mothers’ knowledge and their practices in
prevention of home accidents among toddlers. Results of
that study indicated that half of the population (55.6%)
had knowledge about prevention of home accidents.
On the other hand, our results agreed with (10)
who had studied epidemiologic patterns of domestic
accidents and preventive measures. The latter was a
cross-sectional survey aimed to determine the patterns
of domestic accidents in the community and to assess the
knowledge of participants relating to their interferences.
The findings revealed that home accidents were fewer
among those children and mothers were already aware
of how to deal with such accidents in households.
Moreover, another study [6] had assessed mothers’
knowledge concerning avoidance of slight accidents in
kids. After statistical analysis, results revealed that most
(73%) of participants had average knowledge, 26% had
good knowledge and least (1%) had poor knowledge
regarding accidents prevention in infants and toddlers.
So, the study recommended prevention of accidents
among children under five. Also, it recommended
that people should be educated and made aware about
Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, February 2019 2018, Vol. 10, No. 02 841
accidents preventive measures in infants and toddlers
through different means such as media which may help
prevent accidents.
In addition, mothers’ knowledge reported in present
study is consistent with a study that had investigated
prevalence of home accidents among 0-6-years old
children and mothers’ levels of precaution-taking
behaviors. The latter study was cross-sectional study.
After statistical analysis, results indicated that mothers
perceived their childhood injuries at a mean of (2.53) [11].
Relationship between mothers’ knowledge and
their demographic data
Childhood is a stage that extends from the period
of breastfeeding, early childhood, until adolescence.
Throughout this period, the mothers must have
knowledge about injuries faced by their children and the
factors that are related to them in order to prevent these
injuries. Findings of current study revealed that there
is a non-significant association between the mothers’
knowledge and their sources of that knowledge, on one
hand, and demographic characteristics (age, education,
occupation) on the other hand, (P >0.05). Current results
agreed with those reported by a previous study [7] which
showed that the relation between mothers’ demographic
data and their knowledge regarding causes of home
accidents was proved to be statistically insignificant
(P>0.05).
Moreover, [12] had studied mothers’ awareness about
kids injuries and avoidance at household. Their findings
indicated that no significant enhancement of knowledge
towards interference was well-known, neither any
connotation to mothers’ socio-demographic features.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Knowledge concerning prevention of childhood
injuries, mothers were pass. In addition, Friends and
neighbors wer considered the main source of mothers’
knowledge concerning prevention of childhood accidents
at home. Mothers’ socio-demographic characteristics did
not influence their knowledge. The study recommended
that knowledge is an important aspect in preventing
accidents. Further studies can be conducted at a national
level and to evaluate knowledge in rural areas.
Ethical Clearance: Permissions for carrying
out the study were obtained from the Research Ethics
Committee at the Health Directorate of Babylon City.
Financial Disclosure: There is no financial
disclosure.
Conflict of Interest: None to declare.
REFERENCES
1. World Health Organization. TEACH-VIP 2. 2017
2. Gholap R. A Study to Assess Mothers Knowledge
and their Practices in Prevention of Home Accidents
among Toddler. International Journal of Life and
Sciences Research. 2017; 3(3): 992-994.
3. Ummuhan A.and BehiceE. Determination of
Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding
Factors Causing Home Accidents and Prevention
in Mothers with a Child Aged 0-5 Years. Journal of
Education and Practice. 2016; 7(18): 222-1735.
4. Pillitteri A. Maternal & child health nursing: care of
the childbearing and childrearing family. Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins; 2010.
5. Kamel G, Emam A. and Mohammed E. Knowledge,
attitude and practice among rural mothers about
Home-related injuries in a rural area in El-Minia
Governorate, Egypt. Science Journal of Public
Health. 2014; 2(6): 653-659.
6. Shrestha S, Singh S, Subedi G. and Chandra
N. Knowledge Regarding Prevention of Minor
Accidents in Children among Mothers Attending
MCH Clinic. International Journal of Nursing
Research and Practice. 2014; 1(1): 2350-1324.
7. El-Sabely A, El-Aziz Y. and Zaher A. Mother’s
Education and her Knowledge about Home Accident
Prevention among Preschool Children in Rural Area
in Sharkia Governorate. Journal of Nursing and
Health Science. 2013; 3(1): 32-40.
8. Yalaki Z, Ta?ar M, Kara N. and Dallar Y. With
Low Socioeconomic Status Measuring about
Family Home Accident Level. Journal of Academic
Emergency Medicine. 2010; 9(3): 129-33.
9. Arulogun S, Ikolo O. and Oluwasanu M. Knowledge
and Practices Relating To Domestic Accident among
Mothers of Pre-School Children in Ibadan Southwest
Local Government Area, Nigeria. Journal of Dental
and Medical Sciences. 2013: 6(3): 49-55.
10. Khalida N, Nudrat Z, Shazia R, Gulzar U, Khalida
A. and Adil A. Epidemiologic Patterns of Domestic
Accidents And Preventive Measures. Pak Armed
Forces Media Journal. 2016; 66(5): 657-62.
842 Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, February 2019 2018, Vol. 10, No. 02
11. Akta? B. 0-6 Age group of mothers whose children
Diagnostics State Security Measures Towards
Home Accidents. Journal of Continuing Medical
Education. 2010; 1(9): 146-149.
12. Carlsson A, Dykes AK, Jansson A, Bramhagen
AC. Mothers’ awareness towards child injuries and
injury prevention at home: an intervention study.
BMC research notes. 2016; 9(1): 223.

  • وصف الــ Tags لهذا الموضوع
  • Childhood injuries, Mothers knowledge, Educational level, socio-demographic data, Purposive

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