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pharmacological activities: hepatoprotective, cardio
protective, anti-cancer and anti-microbial activity of
(raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus): a review
ghaidaa jihadi mohammed1, imad hadi hameed2
1department of biology, college of science, university of al-qadisiyah, hillah city, iraq 2biomedical
science department, university of babylon, college of nursing, hillah city, iraq
abstract
the radish (raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus) is an edible root vegetable of the brassicaceae family
that was domesticated in europe in pre-roman times. the root is best harvested before the plant flowers.
its use is not recommended if the stomach or intestines are inflamed. the leaves, seeds and old roots are
used in the treatment of asthma and other chest complaints. the juice of the fresh leaves is diuretic and
laxative. the seed is carminative, diuretic, expectorant, laxative and stomachic. it is taken internally in the
treatment of, abdominal bloating, wind, acid regurgitation, diarrhea and bronchitis. the root is antiscorbutic,
antispasmodic, astringent, cholagogue, and diuretic. antimicrobial proteins and peptides in plants have
most commonly been discovered in seeds where they accumulate to high level and may also function
as storage proteins. the crude water extract of seed inhibited moderate antifungal activity while showed
highest antibacterial activity against hafnia alvei and enterobacter agglomerans exhibited. it has been
observed that rude water extract posses highest antibacterial activity. crude water extract showed significant
inhibition against some fungal strain like spadicoides stoveri and paecilomyces variotii while some fungal
strain having insignificant inhibition.
keyword: hepatoprotective, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, raphanus raphanistrum, review.
corresponding author:
imad hadi hameed
biomedical science department,
university of babylon, college of nursing,
hillah city, iraq
phone: 009647716150716
e-mail: imad_dna@yahoo.com
introduction
radishes are grown and consumed throughout
the world, being mostly eaten raw as a crunchy salad
vegetable. radishes have long been grown as a food crop,
but they also have various medicinal actions. the plant is
used in the treatment of intestinal parasites, though the part
of the plant used is not specified1-8. they have numerous
varieties, varying in size, flavor, color, and length of time
they take to mature. radishes owe their sharp flavor to
the various chemical compounds produced by the plants,
including glucosinolate, myrosinase, and isothiocyanate.
they are sometimes grown as companion plants and
suffer from few pests and diseases9-19. it is crushed and
used as a poultice for burns, bruises and smelly feet.
radishes are also an excellent food remedy for stone,
gravel and scorbutic conditions. the plant contains
raphanin, which is antibacterial and antifungal20-25. it
inhibits the growth of staphylococcus\ aureus, e. coli,
streptococci, pneumococci etc. radish preparations are
useful in liver and gall bladder troubles. consuming
radish generally results in improved digestion, but some
people are sensitive to its acridity and robust action26-31.
the plant also shows anti-tumor activity.
pharmacological activities
hepatoprotective activity: it is reported that the
methonolic extract of leaves of raphanus sativus active
against paracetamol induced hepato toxicity. paracetamol
increced the activity of hepatic enzymes like sgot,
sgpt, serum ldh, serum ap. an antioxidant is a
molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation
of other molecules. oxidation reactions can produce
doi number: 10.5958/0976-5506.2018.00211.5
indian journal of public health research & development, march 2018, vol.9, no. 3 213
free radicals, which start chain reactions that damage
cells32-36. antioxidant defenses fall in to two main
categories, those whose role is to prevent the generation
of free radicals and those that intercept any radicals that
are generated.
cardio protective activity: the chronic cardio toxicity
may result from summation of multiple biochemical
pathways of cellular damage, which ultimately yields
distruption of myocardiocyte integrity and loss of cardiac
function. nitricoxide (no) is a key molecule involved in
the pathophysiology of heart disregulation of activity
of nitric oxide synthases (noss) and of no metabolism
seems to be a common feature in cardiac diseases37-41.
hence uric acid may serves as an additional marker of
free radical reactions in patients with acute myocardial
infarction and acute coronary insufficiency.
anti-cancer and anti-microbial activity: anti-cancer
and anti-microbial activity of methonolic extract of
leaves of raphanus sativus was reported. insoluble ethyl
acetate fraction from methanol extract was the most
active against a. salina. on the other hand, the soluble
ethyl acetate fraction from methanol extract exhibited
strong inhibitory activity against s. aureus.
anti-microbial activity: the plant contains raphanin,
which is antibacterial and antifungal15. it also has
been found to be strongly active escherichia coli,
pseudomonas pyocyaneus, salmonella typhi and bacillus
subtilisetc42-48. it inhibits the growth of staphylococcus
aureus, streptococci, pneumococci. it is also active
against many food born pathogenic and food spoilage
bacteria such as listeria, micrococcus, enterococcus,
lactobacillus and pedicoccusspps.
inhibitory response on lipid peroxidation: free radicals
are continuously produced in body of all living organisms
mainly due to oxidation processes. antioxidant system of
the body is generally able to combat the oxidative stress
produced after normal physiological processes. modern
civilization is facing a variety of mental and physical
stress, pollutant stress, stress caused by consuming fast
food, etc49-51. these stresses culminate into generation
of free radicals and the antioxidant system of body fails
to combat this situation. oxidation of lipid molecules
of membrane causes its damage resulting into the
development of several physiological and pathological
disorders. inhibition of lipid peroxidation by any means
is the best way to avoid these disorders in the body. it
was reported that the plant inhibits lipid peroxidation
by increasing the activity of enzymatic antioxidants like
catalase and also by increasing or maintaining the levels
of glutathione.
antiurolithiatic activity: the aqueous extract
of the bark of raphanus sativus was tested for its
antiurolithiatic and diuretic activity. the urolithiasis was
experimentally induced by implantation of zinc disc in
the urinary bladder of rats. significant decrease in the
weight of stones was observed after treatment in animals
which received aqueous extract in comparison with
control groups.
anti tyrosinase and anti-oxidant activity: two different
types of r. sativus l. root extracts, i.e., the freezedried
juice and the methanolic extract were evaluated
for their inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase and
their scavenging activity on dpph, superoxide anion
and singlet oxygen. the methanolic extract of the
radish sprout exhibited hydroxyl radical scavenging
potency 1.8-fold higher than that of l-ascorbic acid. it
is suggested that flavonoids, together with sinapinic acid
esters, may significantly contribute to the antioxidant
activity of radish roots andsprouts. also, black radish,
which is a variety of r. sativus, possesses antioxidant
and free radical scavenging properties52-54. it is very
likely that the thai radish roots may possess significant
antityrosinase and antioxidant activities which will have
beneficial effects on the skin.
gastro protective activity: the radish juice possesses
an antigastric ulcer effect, being presumably attributed
to its phenolic, terpenoidal and sulphurated constituents
through preventing the accumulation of excessive
free radicals and protecting the gastric tissue against
noxious chemical challenges. this may be related to
its pg generating, antioxidant and/or preserving mucus
secreting properties and by strengthening the mucosal
barrier integrity, which is the first line of defense against
endogenous and exogenous ulcerogenic agents.
conclusion
plant medicinal properties of raphanus
raphanistrum is due to presence of bioactive chemical
products. raphanus raphanistrum, is widely used in the
treatment of antiurolithiatic, diuretic activity, anti-cancer
and anti-microbial activity.
214 indian journal of public health research & development, march 2018, vol.9, no. 3
financial disclosure: there is no financial disclosure.
conflict of interest: none to declare.
ethical clearance: in our review, all these major
pharmacological activity were complete analysis under
the biological department of college of science for
women in hillah city.
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  • وصف الــ Tags لهذا الموضوع
  • Hepatoprotective, Anti-cancer, anti-microbial, Raphanus raphanistrum, Review.

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