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Anti-inflammatory Effects and Other Uses of Cyclamen Species A Review

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 عماد هادي حميد الطائي 11/07/2018 17:41:06
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Anti-inflammatory Effects and Other Uses of
Cyclamen Species: A Review
Ghaidaa Jihadi Mohammed1, Imad Hadi Hameed2, Sabreen A. Kamal3
1Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Hillah city, Iraq; 2Biomedical
Science Department, University of Babylon, College of Nursing, Hillah city, Iraq; 3Department of Biology,
College of Science for women, University of Babylon, Hillah city, Iraq
ABSTRACT
Cyclamen was traditionally classified in the family Primulaceae, was reclassified in the subfamily
Myrsinoideae within the family Primulaceae. The aqueous extract obtained from the Cyclamen europaeum
root-tuber is rich in saponins. These substances are known for their surfactant activity, which means they are
adsorbed through the nasal mucosa without being absorbed into the bloodstream. The action of cyclamen
extract is local, and it is never absorbed into the bloodstream, so there are no known medication interactions
associated with it. This product can be prescribed both as a monotherapy and, if needed, in combined
therapy with other medications for treating rhinosinusitis. These include antibiotics, corticosteroids and
antihistamines. If use of another nasal spray is required, waiting 2 hours between the two products is
recommended. The surfactant action of the cyclamen saponins on the nasal mucosa reduces surface tension,
facilitating humidification of the zone in addition to the secretion of mucin by goblet cells. This fluidifies the
mucous accumulated in the nasal cavity, facilitating its elimination and thereby relieving congestion.
Keyword: Cyclamen, species, Anti-inflammatory, Bioactive compounds, Applications.
Corresponding Author:
Imad Hadi Hameed
Biomedical Science Department,
University of Babylon, College of Nursing,
Hillah city, Iraq;
Phone: 009647716150716
E-mail: imad_dna@yahoo.com
INTRODUCTION
Cyclamen is Medieval Latin, from earlier Latin
cyclam?nos, because of the round tuber. In English, the
species of the genus are commonly called by the genus
name1-9. Is a genus of 23 species of perennial flowering
plants in the family Primulaceae10-26. Cyclamen species
are native to Europe and the Mediterranean Basin east
to Iran, with one species in Somalia. They grow from
tubers and are valued for their flowers with upswept
petals and variably patterned leaves. Species: Cyclamen
africanum, Cyclamen abchasicum, Cyclamen alpinum,
Cyclamen balearicum, Cyclamen cilicium, Cyclamen
colchicum, Cyclamen confusum, Cyclamen coum,
Cyclamen creticum, Cyclamen cyprium, Cyclamen
elegans, Cyclamen graecum, Cyclamen hederifolium,
Cyclamen intaminatum, Cyclamen libanoticum,
Cyclamen mirabile, Cyclamen parviflorum, Cyclamen
persicum, Cyclamen pseudibericum, Cyclamen
purpurascens, Cyclamen repandum, Cyclamen rhodium,
Cyclamen rohlfsianum, and Cyclamen somalense. In
many languages26-34, cyclamen species are colloquially
called by a name like the English sowbread, because
they are said to be eaten by pigs: pain de pourceau in
French, pan porcino in Italian, varkensbrood in Dutch,
“pigs’ manj?” in Japanese. In addition, the saponins
stimulate the sensitive receptors present in the nasal
mucosa, inducing a nociceptive response transmitted by
the trigeminal nerve35-42. The nasal mucosa is entirely
innervated by the trigeminal nerve, and therefore the
cholinergic response generated in the nasal cavity
is observed throughout the nasal mucosa, favouring
opening of the ostium, increasing glandular secretions
and increasing ciliar movement in the entire area43-50. The
accumulated secretions in the sinuses are consequently
drained through the nose, providing rapid symptomatic
relief of nasal congestion51.
DOI Number: 10.5958/0976-5506.2018.00210.3
Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, March 2018, Vol.9, No. 3 207
Anti-inflammatory effects of cyclamen: Cyclamens
are plants native to an area of southern Europe, northern
Africa and western Asia bordering the Mediterranean
sea. The Cyclamen genus comprises around 20 species,
the most familiar being purpurascens, widely cultivated
as a houseplant for its showy, dark green leaves flecked
with silver, and nodding white, pink or red flowers with
their familiar, reflexed petals52-55. In medieval times
cyclamen retained its plethora of uses, but became used
increasingly in the treatment of rheumatic and arthritic
conditions. Recent research has focused on reported antiinflammatory
and antinociceptive effects of cyclamen
extracts. The roots contain triterpene glycosides known
as saponins and researchers at the University of Padua in
Italy have found that extracts of the tubers of Cyclamen
repandum show promising activity when tested on
rats and mice56-60. The researchers have isolated and
identified the various glycosides and have carried out
further in vitro studies measuring the anti-inflammatory
properties of cyclamen extracts. They concentrated
particularly upon the activity of a newly isolated saponin
called repandoside61-63. Results showed that repandoside
is one of several saponins that did indeed mediate the
inflammatory response by influencing the behaviour of
human macrophages. It is hoped that these compounds
can be developed for future use in the treatment of
inflammatory conditions64.
CONCLUSION
Cyclamen, is widely used in the anti-inflammatory
and antinociceptive effects. Cyclamen derived bioactive
compounds used as source of antibiotic properties and
pharmaceutical industries used for drug formulation.
Financial disclosure: There is no financial disclosure.
Conflict of interest: None to declare.
Ethical Clearance: In this review, all information were
collected and completed analysis under the biological
department of college of Science in Hillah city.
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